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Exploring the Sixth Sutra: "Pramana Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidra Smritayah"



Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, a seminal text in the philosophy and practice of Yoga, offer profound insights into the mind and the path to spiritual liberation. Comprising 196 aphorisms or sutras, this text systematically outlines the theory and practice of Yoga. Each sutra is a concise, powerful statement that encapsulates a specific aspect of the yogic journey. The sixth sutra, part of the first chapter (Samadhi Pada), is particularly significant as it delves into the nature of mental modifications, or 'vrittis', which are central to understanding and achieving the state of Yoga.


The Sixth Sutra: "Pramana Viparyaya Vikalpa Nidra Smritayah"


Translation: "Right knowledge, wrong knowledge, imagination, sleep, and memory are the five types of mental modifications.”


These were introduced in the 5th yoga sutra in last weeks blog.


The sixth sutra succinctly categorizes the five forms of mental modifications that affect our perception and experience of reality. Understanding these modifications is crucial for anyone on the yogic path, as they represent the fluctuations of the mind that need to be stilled for achieving Samadhi, or deep meditative absorption.


  1. Pramana (Right Knowledge):

  • Definition: Pramana refers to valid or correct knowledge that is derived from direct perception (pratyaksha), inference (anumana), and reliable testimony (agama).

  • Significance: This form of mental modification is essential for navigating the world accurately. However, in the context of yoga, even right knowledge is seen as a modification that can disturb the inner peace and needs to be transcended.

2. Viparyaya (Wrong Knowledge):

  • Definition: Viparyaya is false or incorrect knowledge, which occurs when something is misunderstood or misperceived.

  • Significance: This type of vritti can lead to misconceptions and suffering, creating obstacles on the path to clarity and enlightenment.

3. Vikalpa (Imagination):

  • Definition: Vikalpa refers to imagination or fantasy, where thoughts and images are created without a corresponding reality.

  • Significance: While imagination can be a source of creativity, in the yogic context, it is another form of mental distraction that can pull the mind away from present reality and the pursuit of spiritual goals.

4. Nidra (Sleep):

  • Definition: Nidra denotes the state of sleep, where there is an absence of mental content but the mind is still active in a different mode.

  • Significance: Although sleep is essential for physical and mental rest, it is considered a vritti because it represents a state where the mind is not fully aware or conscious.

5. Smriti (Memory):

  • Definition: Smriti means memory, the mental process of recalling past experiences.

  • Significance: Memory, while useful, can also be a source of attachment and aversion, affecting present experiences and reactions. It can create biases and expectations that disturb mental tranquility.


For a practitioner of yoga, recognizing these five types of mental modifications is a step towards gaining mastery over the mind. The goal of yoga is to still these fluctuations (Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha) to experience a state of pure awareness and unperturbed consciousness. Here are some practical ways to apply the insights from the sixth sutra:


  • Mindfulness and Meditation: By observing the mind through practices like meditation, one can become more aware of these mental modifications as they arise and learn to detach from them.

  • Discrimination and Detachment: Developing the power of discrimination (viveka) helps in distinguishing between right and wrong knowledge, reality and imagination. Practicing detachment (vairagya) reduces the impact of memory and sleep on one's mental state.

  • Self-Reflection and Inquiry: Regular self-reflection and inquiry into the nature of one's thoughts can help in understanding the patterns of mental modifications and working towards reducing their hold on the mind.


The sixth sutra of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras provides a foundational framework for understanding the workings of the mind. By categorizing mental modifications into right knowledge, wrong knowledge, imagination, sleep, and memory, Patanjali offers a roadmap for navigating the mental landscape. For yoga practitioners, this sutra is a crucial reminder that the path to enlightenment involves mastering the mind by recognizing and transcending these mental fluctuations.



Hari Om Tat Sat

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